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November 20, 2015

Is there a Dark Sector or was Einstein Wrong?

Physics Colloquium, Thursday, December 3rd, 2015

Speaker:  Scott Dodelson, Fermilab

Abstract:

Observations over the past decade suggest that most of the energy in the Universe is in the form of Dark Energy and Dark Matter. The hunt is on for the identity of these new substances as we strive to understand how they fit in to the rest of physics. Recently, attention has turned to another possibility: there is no dark sector but Einstein’s theory of gravity needs to be modified. We are now faced (again!) with a contest between two competing ideas: Change the fundamental laws of Nature OR Introduce new substances. Which will win and how will we find out?

Host: Graham Kribs

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:
http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

 

November 16, 2015

Title: Advanced Particle Accelerator R&D

Physics Colloquium, Thursday, November 19th, 2015

Speaker: Mark Hogan, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Abstract:

Particle accelerators are the ultimate microscopes. They produce high-energy beams of particles – or, in some cases, generate X-ray laser pulses – to probe the fundamental particles and forces that make up the universe and explore the building blocks of life. But it takes huge accelerators, like the 2-mile-long SLAC linac, to generate beams with enough energy and resolving power. If we could achieve the same thing with accelerators just a few feet long, accelerators and particle colliders could be much smaller and cheaper. Eighteen years ago, SLAC began an exciting series of experiments aimed at accelerating electrons and positrons to high energies in a much shorter distance by having them “surf” on waves of hot, ionized gas like that found in fluorescent light tubes. These “plasma wakefield acceleration” experiments have been mounted by a diverse group of accelerator, laser and plasma researchers from national laboratories and universities at FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, which uses the first two kilometers of the SLAC linac. Mark Hogan reviews the history of these experiments, the current program at FACET and plans for the future at FACET-II.

Host: Jim Brau

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:
http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

 

 

 

November 9, 2015

Title: The Black Hole Information Paradox, Alive and Kicking

Physics Colloquium, Thursday, November 12th, 2015

Speaker:   Joe Polchinski, UC Santa Barbara

Abstract:

Thought experiments have played an important role in figuring out the laws of physics. For the unification of quantum mechanics and gravity, where the phenomena take place in extreme regimes, they are even more crucial.

Hawking’s 1976 paper “Breakdown of Predictability in Gravitational Collapse” presented one of the great thought experiments in the history of physics, arguing that black holes destroy information in a way that requires a modification of the laws of quantum mechanics. Skeptics for years failed to poke holes in Hawking’s argument, but concluded that if quantum mechanics is to be saved then our understanding of spacetime must break down in a radical way. For a time it seemed that Maldacena’s discovery of gauge/gravity duality had resolved the issue, but the recent firewall argument has opened many new questions.

Host: G. Kribs

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:
http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

 

November 2, 2015

Birds, magnets, soap, and sandblasting: surprising connections in the theory of incompressible flocks

Speaker: John Toner, University of Oregon

Abstract:

In this talk I’ll describe the hydrodynamic theory of the motion of incompressible flocks: that is, collections of self-propelled entities (“birds”) that are packed so tightly together that their density cannot change as they move. In two dimensions, this problem can be mapped onto an equilibrium magnet with a peculiar constraint. This problem, in turn, can be shown to be equivalent to a 2d smectic (“soap”), with the flow lines of the flock playing the role of the smectic layers. Finally, this smectic problem can be mapped onto the 1+1 dimensional KPZ equation, which describes the growth or corrosion (“sandblasting”) of a one dimensional interface. The scaling properties of this last system, which have been known exactly for a long time, can thereby be used to determine those of incompressible 2d flocks. One important implication of the resulting scaling laws is that such flocks can exhibit long-ranged order in two dimensions, unlike their equilibrium counterparts.

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:
http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

 

October 26, 2015

October 29, 2015 Colloquium

Please join us in a special colloquium remembrance dedicated to Russ Donnelly, Marvin Girardeau, Jack Overley and Kwangjai (KJ) Park.

Speakers:

Stan Micklavzina: Russ Donnelly, Marvin Girardeau, Jack Overley and Kwangjai (KJ) Park

David McDaniels:  Kwangjai Park, Marvin Girardeau

Richard Taylor:  Russ Donnelly

Harlan Lefevre: Jack Overley, Kwangjai Park

Stephen Gregory: Russ Donnelly

Michael Raymer: Marvin Girardeau

 Jim Brau: Russ Donnelly

Paul Csonka: Russ Donnelly

 

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:
http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 16, 2015

October 22, 2015 Colloquium

Speaker: Jim Brau, University of Oregon

Title: The International Linear Collider and Terascale Physics

Abstract:

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has opened exploration of the Terascale through proton-proton interactions and, in doing so, has discovered the Higgs boson. This discovery was transformative, revealing the first direct evidence for the mechanism behind electroweak symmetry breaking. It raises deeper questions on the nature of Terascale physics.
The LHC is continuing to probe this physics. The International Linear Collider (ILC), through the relatively clean collisions of polarized electrons and positrons, offers access to new Terascale physics and will generate discoveries complementary to those of the LHC. I will review the progress toward realization of the ILC, including the physics, the world-wide effort on detectors and the accelerator, and developments in Japan toward hosting the project.

 

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:
http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

 

 

October 9, 2015

October 15, 2015 Colloquium

Speaker: Patrick Kelly, UC Berkeley

Title: The Multiply Imaged Strongly Lensed Supernova Refsdal

Abstract:

In 1964, Sjur Refsdal first considered the possibility that the light from a background supernova could traverse multiple paths around a strong gravitational lens towards us. He showed that the arrival times of the supernova’s light would depend on the cosmic expansion rate, as well as the distribution of matter in the lens.  I will discuss the discovery of the first such multiply imaged supernova, which exploded behind the MACS J1149.6+2223 galaxy cluster. We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope grism and ground-based spectra of the four images of the supernova, which form an Einstein Cross configuration around an elliptical cluster member. These spectra as well as rest-frame optical light curves have allowed us to learn about the properties of the peculiar core-collapse supernova explosion, which occurred 4.3 Gyr after the Bang Bang, and contain information about the lenses’ matter distribution as well as their stellar populations.  A delayed image of the supernova is expected close to the galaxy cluster center as early as this Fall, and will serve as an unprecedented probe of the potential of a massive galaxy cluster.

Host: Jim Brau

 

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:
http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

October 5, 2015

October 8, 2015 Colloquium

Speaker: Eric Corwin, University of Oregon

Title:  Glass Rules Everything Around Me

Abstract:

The great successes of modern physics have been reductionist. Equilibrium systems are understood by breaking them into ever smaller and simpler component parts. But the properties of a grain of sand do not determine the properties of the sand pile, nor do the atomic properties of silica determine those of window glass. Rather, all of the interesting behavior arises from the complex geometry of the many interacting pieces: the fundamental physics exists only at the scale of many particles (and indeed the properties of the constituent parts is all but immaterial). In this talk I will provide an overview of my labs successes in understanding the jamming and glass transitions as well as a broad outlook for the future with the eventual goal of cracking the glass transition problem.

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:

http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

September 23, 2015

October 1, 2015 Colloquium

Speaker: Ray Frey
University of Oregon

Title: State of the Department and LIGO update

 

 

 

Click here to view Fall 2015 schedule:

http://physics.uoregon.edu/colloquium-archive/colloquium/

 

June 1, 2015

June 4th Colloquium

[Click here to preview all Spring Colloquia]

Speaker: Michael Dickey, North Carolina State University

Title: Soft, Stretchable, and Reconfigurable Materials for Electronics and Actuators

Abstract:

This talk will describe efforts in our research group to control the shape and function of soft materials (liquid metals, polymers and hydrogels) for applications that include stretchable electronics, soft robots, and self-folding polymer sheets. The research harnesses interfacial phenomena, micro fabrication, patterning, and thin films. The talk with discuss the underlying fundamental science motivating active areas of research in our group, which include:
• Ultra-stretchable wires, sensors, antennas, and microelectrodes composed of liquid metal alloys based on gallium. The metal is a liquid at room-temperature with low-viscosity (water-like) and can be micromolded due to a thin, oxide skin that forms rapidly on its surface. The metal can be patterned in a number of ways including injection into microchannels or by direct-write 3D printing. Recently, we discovered that the oxide may be the best surfactant ever reported and can be removed or deposited using electrochemistry in electrolyte as a new method to control the shape of the metal.
• Self-folding polymers sheets that change shape in response to light. These sheets are a form of shape memory polymers that are compatible with 2D patterning techniques including lithography, inkjet printing, and roll to roll processing. The appeal of this work is converting 2D patterns into 3D shapes in a hands free manner.
• New methods for patterning ions in hydrogels. This reversible process can imprint topography in the hydrogel using modest voltages, tune its local mechanical properties to create physically-reinforcing exoskeletons, and generate stresses sufficient to actuate or fold hydrogels over large distances within seconds.

Host: Physics Graduate Students, Yasin Karim

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